Ancient history of Azerbaijan on the basis of archeological, ethnographic, anthropological and written sources. The items during archeological excavations allowing to study the material and cultural history of Azerbaijan. On the basis of ethnographic materials collected during historical sources and expeditions. In addition traditions, material and spiritual culture, former forms of government, family relations, etc. is studied.
During the archeological researches in the territory of the Republic, rich material culture related to the settlement of the first inhabitants were discovered. As a result, the territory of our republic including in the list of human settlements. The oldest archeological and paleontological materials available in the territory of Azerbaijan. It shows that the first primitive people began to live 1.7-1.8 million years ago.
This land is one of the oldest human settlements in the world. Archaeological finds found in the caves of Azykh, Taglar, Damjili, Dashsalahli, Gazma (Nakhchivan). As well as archeological finds in other monuments, including the jawbone of an ancient man of the Ashol period Azykh man (Azykhantrop), who live 300-400 thousand years ago, proves that Azerbaijan entered the territory formed by primitive people. Due to this unique discovery, the territory of Azerbaijan including in the map of “the oldest inhabitants of Europe”.
The people of Azerbaijan are also one of the world’s oldest statehood traditions. The people of Azerbaijan have a history of about 5,000 years of statehood. The first state institutions or ethno-political associations in the territory of Azerbaijan were formation in the Urmia basin from the end of the 4th millennium BC to the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC. The oldest Azerbaijani states formed here played an important role in the military-political history of the whole region. At that time, Azerbaijan had close relations between the ancient Sumerian, Akkard and Assyrian (Assyrian) states, in the Tigris and Euphrates valleys and leaving a deep mark on world history, as well as the Hittite state in Asia Minor.