The territory of Azerbaijan which has ancient history is one of the oldest places inhabited by the first primitive people. Approximately 1.7-1.8 million years ago, there were discovered historical archaeological and paleontological materials belonged to people who settled in the territory of Azerbaijan. They are: the cave Azykh, Taghlar, Damjili, Dashsalakhly, Qazma caves can be mentioned as an example. This is One of the most important monuments of Azerbaijan belonging to the middle Stone Age (Mesolithic) is historical archaeological complex Gobustan located 56 km away from Baku.
Taking into consideration the above-mentioned the territory of Azerbaijan was included into the map of the most ancient inhabitants of Europe.
The people of Azerbaijan, who have historical roots in the territory of ancient Azerbaijan have set up valuable culture, the traditions of powerful state.
By saying Azerbaijan’s territory, the current Azerbaijan Republic, the territory of the Republic of Armenia, as well as the north-western part of the Islamic Republic of Iran are considered. Because the Azerbaijanis have historically lived in these areas and building the centralized state building became available. But then the political games around the world, thanks to the aggressive policy, the expense of other ethnic groups this territory became smaller and maintains its presence in the modern era officially as the Republic of Azerbaijan.
BC first state structures in Azerbaijan were created in the 3rd millennium BC, but the first centralized state was the state of Manna established in IX century BC.During the march of Alexander the Great to the east, the south and the north part of Azerbaijan were given under the authority of the military leader Atropat. After the death of Alexander the Great Atropat became fully independent and established the state of Atropatena. Later, this name was changed into Adrobaqena, Adirbiqan, Azirbiqan and finally Azerbaijan.
After the death of the last ruler of 20-s of our era Atropatena was involved into the state Parthia.
In the northern lands of Azerbaijan an independent state of Albania was created in the III century BC. The current territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan, the sothern regions of Daghistan, the west parts of Georgia were included into this state. During the reign of the Roman Emperor Domitian (81-96), Rome’s small military detachment arrived in the territory of Azerbaijan for exploration. Their arrival is proved in the inscriptions on the rocks of ancient historical monuments of Gobustan. The monument is currently included into the list of monuments visited by tourists.